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Hou rekening met het natuurlijke groeiproces van planten – Van der Auwera Plantencentrum

Hou rekening met het natuurlijke groeiproces van planten

Categorie:

De natuur is voortdurend in beweging. Bij planten spreken we over successie: een spontane opeenvolging van soortensamenstellingen. Die successie vindt ook plaats in jouw tuin. Hoe je daarmee omgaat, bepaalt hoeveel werk je hebt.

Hoe werkt successie?

Successie voltrekt zich in deze stappen:

  1. pioniersplanten;
  2. grassen;
  3. ruigte;
  4. struiken en bomen.

In onze streken heeft elk stuk grond de neiging te ‘verbossen’: als we niets doen aan een stukje kale grond, zal zich een bos ontwikkelen.

Successiefasen

De eerste planten op kale grond zijn de pioniersplanten. Het zijn eenjarige planten als kamille, korenbloem of klaproos. Snelgroeiers die veel zaad aanmaken om zich gemakkelijk en snel te kunnen verspreiden. Als je niets doet, verdwijnen ze vanzelf. Na een of twee jaar nemen grassen en meerjarige graslandkruiden als margriet en duizendblad de grond over. Als je vervolgens dat grasland ongemoeid laat, zal het plat gaan liggen en een dik pak organisch materiaal vormen. Zo verdwijnen de graslandplanten en steken ruigtekruiden de kop op: grote kaardenbol, koninginnekruid en kattenstaart. Tussen de ruigtekruiden schieten na verloop van tijd struiken en bomen op. Vaak zie je eerst meidoorn, sleedoorn of vlier verschijnen en daarna lichtminnende boomsoorten als berk, wilg, els of abeel. Tenslotte verschijnen ook schaduwtolerante en –minnende soorten als eik, tamme kastanje, beuk en esdoorn.

Successie en onderhoud in je tuin

Met deze successiefasen kun je rekening houden in je tuin.

De basisprincipes:

  • Kale grond krijgt altijd begroeiing. Om de spontane groei van ongewenste planten te vermijden, bedek je de bodem beter zelf met planten die je graag hebt.
  • Zet planten van hetzelfde successiestadium bij elkaar. Zo voorkom je dat de ene plant de andere wegconcurreert. Als je een terrein inzaait met een kant-en-klaar mengsel van graslandkruiden en eenjarige bloemen, zullen de graslandkruiden de eenjarige snel overwoekeren.
  • Vegetatie in een ontwikkelingsstadium houden, vereist altijd werk. De ontwikkeling van pioniersplanten naar grassen en van grassen naar ruigte verloopt veel sneller dan de latere ontwikkeling naar houtachtigen. Een open ruimte vraagt dus altijd meer onderhoud dan een gesloten ruimte met struiken en bomen.
  • Schoffelen of harken maakt de bodem kaal en stimuleert de groei van pioniersplanten. Dat is prima in de moestuin en in de bloemenborder met eenjarige planten, maar elders niet. Je kunt beter de bodem bedekken met gewenste planten.

Bron: Mijn Tuinlab